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Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)

Beginner
skill rating
1 hour care
per year
10m
Max height
10m
Max spread
50-100 years
To maturity

Plant details

Botanical name

Carpinus caroliniana

Other names

American hornbeam, Blue beech, Ironwood, Water beech

Genus

Carpinus Carpinus

Species

C. caroliniana - C. caroliniana is a spreading, deciduous tree with ovate, sharply-toothed, blue-green leaves turning yellow to orange-red in autumn. Yellow male catkins and green female catkins in late winter or early spring are followed by racemes of winged, green fruit ripening yellow-brown.


Carpinus caroliniana is: Deciduous

Habit

Spreading

Flower

Yellow, Green in Spring

Foliage

Blue-green in Spring; Blue-green in Summer; Orange, Yellow, Red in Autumn

How to care

Watch out for

Specific pests

Caterpillars , Aphids Caterpillars , Aphids

Coral spot , Powdery mildew Coral spot , Powdery mildew

General care

Pruning

Pruning group 1. Tolerates hard pruning.

Propagation methods

Grafting, Seed, Softwood cuttings


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Where to grow

Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam) will reach a height of 10m and a spread of 10m after 50-100 years.

Suggested uses

Foliage only, Bonsai, Architectural, Low Maintenance

Cultivation

Best in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in sun or partial shade.

Soil type

Chalky, Clay, Loamy, Sandy (will tolerate most soil types)

Soil drainage

Moist but well-drained, Well-drained

Soil pH

Acid, Alkaline, Neutral

Light

Partial Shade, Full Sun

Aspect

North, South, East, West

Exposure

Exposed, Sheltered

UK hardiness Note: We are working to update our ratings. Thanks for your patience.

Hardy (H4)

Companion plants

Botanical name

Carpinus caroliniana

Other names

American hornbeam, Blue beech, Ironwood, Water beech

Genus

Carpinus Carpinus

Species

C. caroliniana - C. caroliniana is a spreading, deciduous tree with ovate, sharply-toothed, blue-green leaves turning yellow to orange-red in autumn. Yellow male catkins and green female catkins in late winter or early spring are followed by racemes of winged, green fruit ripening yellow-brown.

Native to

Mexico, North America

Foliage

Deciduous

Habit

Spreading


Colour

Flower

Yellow, Green in Spring

Foliage

Blue-green in Spring; Blue-green in Summer; Orange, Yellow, Red in Autumn


How to care

Watch out for

Specific pests

Caterpillars , Aphids

Specific diseases

Coral spot , Powdery mildew

General care

Pruning

Pruning group 1. Tolerates hard pruning.

Propagation methods

Grafting, Seed, Softwood cuttings


Monthly care advice


Where to grow

Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam) will reach a height of 10m and a spread of 10m after 50-100 years.

Suggested uses

Foliage only, Bonsai, Architectural, Low Maintenance

Cultivation

Best in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in sun or partial shade.

Soil type

Chalky, Clay, Loamy, Sandy (will tolerate most soil types)

Soil drainage

Moist but well-drained, Well-drained

Soil pH

Acid, Alkaline, Neutral

Light

Partial Shade, Full Sun

Aspect

North, South, East, West

Exposure

Exposed, Sheltered

UK hardiness Note: We are working to update our ratings. Thanks for your patience.

Hardy (H4)

USDA zones

Zone 9, Zone 8, Zone 7, Zone 6, Zone 5, Zone 4, Zone 3

Defra's Risk register #1

Plant name

Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)

Common pest name

Asian longhorn beetle; Starry sky beetle

Scientific pest name

Anoplophora glabripennis

Type

Insect

Current status in UK

Absent

Likelihood to spread to UK (1 is very low - 5 is very high)

2

Impact (1 is very low - 5 is very high)

4

General biosecurity comments

Recognised threat to a wide range of deciduous tress native to the UK. Already regulated it is a priority for continued surveillance and statutory action. The risk of entry is further mitigated by EU legislation requiring the monitoring of wooden packaging material originating from China.

Defra's Risk register #2

Plant name

Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)

Common pest name

Black timber bark beetle; Smaller alnus bark beetle; tea root borer

Scientific pest name

Xylosandrus germanus

Type

Insect

Current status in UK

Present (Limited)

Likelihood to spread in UK (1 is very low - 5 is very high)

4

Impact (1 is very low - 5 is very high)

3

General biosecurity comments

Ambrosia beetle affecting a wide range of trees and woody hosts. Widespread in Europe and elsewhere and now present in the south of England. Impacts can be reduced by good silvicultural practices. Surveillance is being carried out to better determine distribution.

Defra's Risk register #3

Plant name

Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam)

Common pest name

Scientific pest name

Monochamus guttulatus

Type

Insect

Current status in UK

Absent

Likelihood to spread to UK (1 is very low - 5 is very high)

2

Impact (1 is very low - 5 is very high)

3

General biosecurity comments

East Asian longhorn beetle whose larvae feed on a range of deciduous trees; with a preference for dying trees. A PRA will help to better assess the level of risk to the UK.

About this section

Our plants are under greater threat than ever before. There is increasing movement of plants and other material traded from an increasing variety of sources. This increases the chances of exotic pests arriving with imported goods and travellers, as well as by natural means. Shoot is working with Defra to help members to do their part in preventing the introduction and spread of invasive risks.

Traveling or importing plants? Please read "Don't risk it" advice here

Suspected outbreak? Click here for contact details to report to the relevant authority.

Date updated: 7th March 2019 For more information visit: https://planthealthportal.defra.gov.uk/

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This plant likes... Garden match
Soil types: Chalky, Clay, Loamy, Sandy (will tolerate most soil types) Tell us...
Soil drainage: Moist but well-drained, Well-drained Tell us...
Soil pH: Acid, Alkaline, Neutral Tell us...
Light: Partial Shade, Full Sun Tell us...
Aspect: North, South, East, West Tell us...
Exposure: Exposed, Sheltered Tell us...
Hardiness: Hardy (H4) Tell us...

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